NCERT Class 12 Geography Free Download CBSE

NCERT Geography Books for Class 12

The study of Geography is crucial for students preparing for the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) exams in India, which include both the Prelims and Mains. While there are numerous standard textbooks for Geography, the NCERT textbooks are highly recommended, especially for those starting their IAS (Indian Administrative Service) preparation. These books provide a comprehensive and foundational understanding of geographic concepts.

NCERT Geography Books for Class 12

Class 12 NCERT Geography textbooks are pivotal for understanding the subject’s core concepts. There are two key books available for free download:

  1. Fundamentals of Human Geography
  2. India: People and Economy

These books are not only relevant for school education but also serve as an essential base for competitive exams like the UPSC.

Geography Book Class 12 Free PDF Download

Part 1

Part 2 People And Economy

मानव भूगोल के मूल सिद्धांत – Geography Class 12th Books All Chapters in Hindi Medium

NCERT मानव भूगोल के मूल सिद्धांत – Geography  Class 12 Part 1 Book in Hindi

Part 2 People And Economy in Hindi

Part 3 in Hindi

Book 1: Fundamentals of Human Geography

This book offers an in-depth understanding of various aspects of human geography, including:

  • Nature and Scope of Human Geography: Understanding the field’s basics and its significance.
  • Population Studies: Insights into world population distribution, density, growth, and composition.
  • Human Development: Discussing development indicators and patterns.
  • Economic Activities: Covering primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities.
  • Global Interactions: Delving into topics like transport, communication, and international trade.
  • Human Settlements: Examining various types of settlements and their characteristics.

Book 2: India: People and Economy

This book focuses on the geographical aspects of India, including:

  • Population and Migration: Analyzing India’s population dynamics and migration patterns.
  • Resources and Development: Exploring land, water, mineral, and energy resources.
  • Economic Sectors: Detailed study of agriculture, industries, and sustainable development.
  • Infrastructure: Transport, communication, and international trade in the Indian context.
  • Geographical Issues: Discussing selected issues and problems from a geographical perspective.

Importance for UPSC Preparation

For UPSC aspirants, these NCERT books are invaluable as they lay down a solid foundation in geography. The topics covered are directly aligned with the UPSC syllabus, making them a must-read for serious candidates. The clarity and depth of these books help in building a strong conceptual base, which is crucial for writing the UPSC exams.


The great advantage of these NCERT books is their accessibility. They can be downloaded for free in PDF format, making them easily available to all aspirants. This democratizes access to high-quality study materials, which is essential for fair competition in exams like the UPSC.


In summary, the Class 12 NCERT Geography textbooks are essential resources for students, especially those preparing for UPSC exams. They offer detailed insights into various geographic themes and concepts, with a special focus on human geography and the geographical features of India. Their free availability in PDF format further adds to their value, making them accessible study materials for aspiring civil servants.